4) Trichomonas (Canker) in Pigeons by Racing Pigeon Laboratory Testing
Trichomonas CANKER – 10% can be seeing 90% can’t. Nature of the disease canker is caused by a protozoan Trichomonas. This is a microscopic single-celled organism. It lives within the digestive tract of pigeons, in particular the throat and crop, and can also involve associated areas such as the bile duct. The organism is fragile in the environment, only surviving for a few minutes once outside the bird.
This helps with control of the disease and means that the birds cannot become infected from the loft or immediate environment as happens with other diseases such as worms and paratyphoid. The organism (trichomonad) requires intimate contact between birds to be spread and is usually transmitted by saliva or pigeon milk ref Donal Barry. Saliva contaminates food and water. As a pigeon drinks, the organism swims away from its beak and, when another pigeon comes to drink, it not only drinks the water but also the trichomonads there. When a pigeon sorts through grain, each dropped grain contains a small amount of saliva. In this way, the disease can also be spread through a feed hopper. Adult birds 'billing' can transmit the organism, as do parents when feeding their nestlings advise from our Pigeon Vet.
Internal canker can infect internal sites associated with the digestive tract, notably the bile duct, which drains bile from the liver into the bowel. Birds with internal canker nodules usually display non-specific signs of illness, including weight loss, lethargy, reluctance to eat and green diarrhoea. Control of canker during the breeding season correct medication is vital during the breeding season so that the level of natural immunity in the weaned youngster is as high as possible. Because the severity of the disease varies in different lofts, there is no single blanket program that is best for all lofts. There is no drug that by itself will cure canker in a loft. It is a matter of using medication correctly so that the birds can establish a strong natural immunity to the disease.
It is this natural immunity that, in the longer term, protects them from the disease. Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas gallinae) - Pigeon Canker. Wild pigeons can carry trichomonas gallinae or pigeon canker. Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan organism that is commonly found in the mouth, throat, gastro-intestinal tract and upper respiratory tract of pigeons, doves, turkeys, chickens, canaries, raptors (birds of prey) and a variety of psittacine (parrot) bird species including budgerigars, cockatiels, and Amazon parrots. Both domestic and wild bird species can be affected. In large numbers, the Trichomonas organism can cause severe respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in avian hosts. This disease condition is termed trichomoniasis by medical professionals.
To bird enthusiasts, the Trichomonas disease condition is also known by such names as "trich" (said like 'try-k'), "Canker" (pigeons and doves) or "Frounce" (raptors). This page contains detailed, but simple to understand, information on the bird disease trichomoniasis or "Canker", which is caused by the protozoan organism Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonas disease symptoms, modes of transmission (means of disease spread), medical treatment options and tips for ongoing Trichomonas prevention are all included, along with information on how to diagnose the condition. Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker page.
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas gallinae)
1) What is avian Trichomonas and what does it look like? - facts about the Trichomonas organism. Contains a link to a Trichomonas gallinae video that was filmed by this author in the clinic.
2) Symptoms of Trichomonas infection in birds (symptoms of canker disease). This section includes a list of diseases other than Trichomonas that can cause white or yellow plaques or spots to appear in the mouths and throats of birds (i.e. diseases that can mimic or look like Trichomonas).
3) How is trichomoniasis disease spread among birds?
4) How is trichomoniasis diagnosed in birds (how to tell if a bird has the organism)?
5) Treatment of Trichomonad infestations in definitive host birds.
6) Preventing your bird from catching canker. Includes information and tips for the control and prevention of Trichomonas in large bird flocks.
Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker page:
1) What is avian Trichomonas and what does it look like? - facts about the Trichomonas organism. Avian Trichomonas is a parasitic organism that infests the upper gastro-intestinal tract (esophagus, crop and proventriculus), mouth, oropharynx (throat region) and upper respiratory tract of a range of different bird species. The species of Trichomonas that affects birds including pigeons, doves, turkeys, chickens, canaries, raptors (birds of prey), various parrot species (e.g., budgerigars, cockatiels, and Amazon parrots) as well as certain other types of birds is called Trichomonas gallinae (there is also another species of Trichomonas that affects pigeons, which is called Trichomonas columbae).
What type of organism is Trichomonas: The Trichomonas organism is a protozoan organism? A protozoa is a single-celled organism (organism comprising of a single cell). Trichomonas belongs to a group of protozoan organisms called 'flagellates'. Many species of flagellate organisms parasitize birds and Trichomonas is but one of these (Giardia and Hex Amita are some of the other flagellate species that infect birds). Flagellate organisms are characterized by having 'flagella'. Flagella (singular flagellum) are long, hair-like structures that protrude from the bodies of certain protozoan organisms and provide them with momentum (i.e. help them to swim).
The various Trichomonas species (there aremany species of Trichomonas in addition to T. gallinae) have distinct clumps of flagella protruding from the anterior end of their bodies (the exact number of flagella present is one cluescientists use to determine the species of a Trichomonas organism that they have found). Most Trichomonads only have a maximum of 3-5 flagella. Trichomonas gallinae has 4 flagella. What does Trichomonas look like - body characteristics and features of the organism: Trichomonas organisms have a main body structure that is teardrop or oval shaped. Being a complete cell (a true single-celled organism), the body of Trichomonas contains a single nucleus. A central rod-like structure called an axostyle runs through the centre of the organism along the long-axis. It protrudes a bit from the posterior end of the organism's body. A distinct membrane called an undulating membrane runs down one side of the organism's body like a fin.
When the Trichomonas organism is viewed under the microscope, this membrane is seen to ripple down the organism's body in curved waves (hence the term: undulating). As mentioned before, 3-5 flagella protrude from the anterior end of the Trichomonas organism. One of these flagella (called a posterior flagellum) curves backwards, running along the topedge of the undulating membrane towards the rear of the organism. I have drawn a very stylised diagram of a Trichomonas organism on the right. Depending on the species of Trichomonas you are looking at, physical differences may exist in such features as: the number of anterior flagella, the size and length of the undulating membrane, the size and shape and position of the parabasal body and the length of the ax style.
Author's note: I have colored parts of the diagram to make my labeling clearer. Trichomonas, when seen under the microscope, is colorless and translucent. To see my video on identifying Trichomonas, through the microscope, click here. How does Trichomonas reproduce (replicate)? The organism replicates by longitudinal fission, meaning that it divides into two along its long axis. It does not produce a long-lived environmentally shed oocyst like many other protozoan organisms do (e.g., coccidia, Giardia) and, for this reason, it cannot survive for long away from its host.
How does Trichomonas survive in the body (what does it feed on) and how does it produce signs of disease? Trichomonas is an organism that lives and feeds on the mucosal surfaces lining various internal regions of the body. Which regions of the body get affected by Trichomonas depends very much on the species of Trichomonas you are talking about. For example: Trichomonas tenax dwells on the mucosal surfaces lining the mouth, gums, and upper respiratory tracts of people; Trichomonas gallinae affects the upper gastro-intestinal tract (esophagus, crop and proventriculus), mouth, oropharynx (throat region) and upper respiratory tract of birds and Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus both live upon the mucosal surfaces lining the male and female reproductive tracts of humans and cattle, respectively.
On the one hand, Trichomonas can be a "clean up organism" in that it primarily feeds upon bacteria, cellular debris (bits of dead cells and bacteria), protein exudates and white blood cells (pus) present on the body surfaces where it lives. Many strains of Trichomonascause absolutely no symptoms in animals or people and are found incidentally during routine swabs. Important note: Because they feed on cell debris, pus and bacteria, Trichomonasnumbers will often increase dramatically when the surfaces that they live on become infected or sick for some other reason (e.g., Trichomonas tenax loves to feed and breeding infected gum pockets and will tend to be found in people with poor dental hygiene and associated gum disease). Swabs of these infected tissues will often yield high numbers of Trichomonas organisms, but one must be cautious in interpreting this 'positive' result because the Trichomonas populations might in fact only be increased secondary to some another disease condition (i.e. the Trichomonas organisms may not actually be responsible for the disease condition seen)!
More virulent, disease-causing strains of Trichomonas release proteins and enzymes that break down or 'digest' surrounding host tissues, causing injury to these host tissues. They do this to make more food (more cell debris) for themselves. The highly antigenic proteins and enzymes released by the Trichomonas protozoans, as well as the host tissue damage incurred because of them, trigger a huge inflammatory response by the host, producing redness, swelling, pain, itching and pus exudation of the regions occupied by the Trichomonas organisms.
Macrophages (a type of large white blood cell) are often included in this inflammatory response as they can destroy Trichomonas organisms. The digestive proteins made by the Trichomonas organisms and the injurious effects of the attacking host inflammatory response both conspire to produce damage to the host's tissues. Even though Trichomonas only dwells on the mucosal surfaces of tissues like the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and vagina, sometimes the damage produced by the organisms can be so severe that the organism virtually 'eats through' the lining of its home and invades some of the more internal tissues. Both species of avian Trichomonas have been known to enter the livers of pigeons via the gastrointestinal tract and extreme infections of Trichomonas gallinae have been known to eat through the roof of the mouth of raptors, resulting in invasion of the brain. Author's note: Trichomonas organisms prefer to live in more alkaline pH conditions (around pH 5-6).
They will actively secrete substances into their local environment that facilitate a pH change towards their favored pH range. Bathing Trichomonas infected tissues with mildly acidic solutions can often help to reduce their numbers (acidity kills them). Does Trichomonas survive if it is away from its host? Trichomonas does not produce a long-lived environmentally shed oocyst like many other protozoan organisms do (e.g., coccidia, Giardia) and, for this reason, it cannot survive for long away from its host. I tend to find when I am performing Trichomonas swabs that I must look at them straight away under the microscope (i.e. as soon as possible after swabbing the host) otherwise they will die off within minutes and become undetectable.
After about 30 minutes, most of the ones ona swab sample will have died - they do not live exceptionally long at all out of the host. For this reason (limited survival away from the host animal), Trichomonas is transmitted though awfully close host-to-host contact. Depending on the species of Trichomonas and on the body sites it invades, this mode of transmission might include kissing, sex, regurgitant feeding (birds)or the consumption of Trichomonas affected prey (raptors). Transmission can also occur through shared food and water sources, provided the organisms are not made to stay in the food or water for exceptionally long (they can live for some span of minutes in food and water sources, allowing some transmission through this route).
This route of transmission becomes especially important when lots of animals are eating and drinking at the same place at the same time (e.g., at busy bird feeders, aviaries). Some basics on other Trichomonas species: Trichomonas gallinae of birds is closely related to the various other Trichomonas organisms that live in other animal and human host species. Other types of Trichomonas include: Trichomonas tenax(which lives in the mouth, gums and respiratory tracts of people, often producing no symptoms); Trichomonas vaginalis (which lives in the reproductive tracts of people, causing reproductive problems and infertility in some people and no signs of disease in others) and Tritrichomonas foetus (which lives in the reproductive tracts of cattle, zebu and other related hosts, causing vaginitis, early abortion, failure to conceive and infertility). There is also a species of Trichomonas now emerging that is found to cause signs of colitis (mucoid stools, diarrhea, fresh blood in the feces, 'straining to defecate' and high-frequency defecation) in cats and kittens. It is found by examiningthe mucus present in freshly passed stools under the microscope.
Note - The Trichomonad species that affect the reproductive tract (T. foetus and T. vaginalis) are carried by male animals (who usually show no symptoms) and passed to female animals through mating (the female animals are the ones who usually show the signs of disease). Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP. 2) Symptoms of Trichomonas infection in birds (symptoms of canker disease). Birds with low levels of Trichomonas infestation may show absolutely no symptoms at all. In these cases, the organisms may go undiagnosed, or they might be found by accident during a routine crop wash or oropharyngeal swab examination.
Folks who race pigeons often perform routine swabs on birds that appear clinically normal to detect if they carry the organisms and might pose a risk of infection to other birds in the loft. Symptomatic Trichomonas gallinae infestations tend to present as signs of irritation and inflammation localised to the mouth, throat, gastrointestinal tract (lining of crop, esophagus and proventriculus) and upper respiratory tract, which makes sense since the organisms happen to preferentially reside inside of these regions. Symptoms suggestive of avian Trichomonas infection (canker) include:
1) white or yellow cheesy-looking plaques, ulcers and/or nodules inside of the mouth and throat.
2) reduced appetite, complete inappetence and/or a physical inability to eat.
3) inability to swallow (either due to pain or because of severe esophageal thickening making food difficult to pass).
4) crop stasis (thickening of the lining of the crop and/or oesophagus results in an inability of the food to move from the mouth to the stomach, producing starvation).
5) excessive mucus in the mouth, esophagus, and crop.
7) vomiting (some birds vomit blood).
9) weight loss and poor body condition (some birds can become extremely emaciated).
10) depression (fluffed-up, sleepy appearance - the 'sick bird' look).
13) respiratory distress (the mucus secretions plug the trachea and throat, making it hard for the birds to breathe).
14) liver damage can occur if Trichomonas organisms invade the liver, resulting in green biliverdinemia (birds with liver failure or 'jaundice' appear green, not yellow).
15) death. Some severely affected birds may show many or most of these symptoms, whereas other birds may only show one or two of them and be almost asymptomatic. Budgerigars rarely develop obvious oral lesions. Raptors often get nasty, cheesy-looking lesions under their tongues and on their hard palates (the roof of the mouth).
Over time, the Trichomonas organisms can destroy the hard palate and/or mandible (jawbone), making the bird unable to eat and causing it to die from starvation. On some occasions, the Trichomonas organisms can even eat through the roof of the mouth and throat and into the skull and brain. Such a condition is fatal.
Diseases other than Trichomonas that can produce white or yellow plaques or ulcers in the mouths of birds:
•Avian Pox Viruses (e.g., pigeon pox, magpie pox, canary pox).
•Bacterial infections and abscesses
•Squamous metaplasia from a lack of vitamin A in the diet (avitaminosis A)
•Mycobacterial infections (e.g., avian tuberculosis)
•Amazon tracheitis virus (a herpesvirus of Amazon parrots that is often associated with respiratory disease signs)
•Various cancers of the mouth (squamous cell carcinomas, Fibrosarcoma's, Lymphomas and Polyps have been diagnosed in birds) Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP. 3)
How is trichomoniasis disease spread among birds?
Trichomonas gallinae and Trichomonas columbate are spread from bird to bird often via contaminated feed and water sources. During normal feeding and drinking activities, Trichomonas organisms present in the mouth and nasal secretions (e.g., saliva) of infected birds may enter food and water sources, contaminating them. Other birds consuming water and food from the same sources (e.g., feed bowls) can pick up these organisms, thus becoming infected.
Trichomonas organisms are also passed in the feces of infected birds. Infected birds may defecate into food and water sources, contaminating those food and water supplies with Trichomonas organisms that can infect the next bird that comes along.
Author's note: Be very aware of the potential for wild birds to pose a source of Trichomonas infection for domestic birds. Wild pigeons and other species can walkaround on the roofs of aviaries, defecating through the wire into the food and water supplies of the birds dwelling within. This is one way that a 'clean' flock can become contaminated with nasty Trichomonas. Infected parent birds can spread Trichomonas to their young directly through regurgitant feeding. When a bird regurgitates, it brings up partially digested food stored in its crop and passes this on to its young.
Given that Trichomonas lives in the crop, esophagus, and mouth, it follows that regurgitative feeding will result in large numbers of this organism passing on to the baby birds. Pigeons are particularly bad for this. Pigeons produce a nutritious secretion in their crops that is referred to as 'crop milk'. They regurgitate this to their offspring (squabs - the term for a young pigeon) as a form of nutrition and, in doing so, pass the Trichomonas bugs on to them. Raptors (birds of prey) become infected with Trichomonas by predating upon other birds (e.g., doves and pigeons) that are carrying the organism. It takes about 10 days for the raptor to develop obvious infection after eating a sick bird.
Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP.
4) How is trichomoniasis diagnosed in birds (how to tell if a bird has the organism)? Because it is such a small organism, one that cannot be seen with the naked eye, Trichomonas is not able to be definitively diagnosed simply by visual examination of the sick bird. Certainly, the presence of distinctive yellow or white nodules or plaques in the mouths of susceptible breeds (especially pigeons, doves, and raptors) makes for a pretty convincing argument that Trichomonas is the diagnosis, however, as mentioned before, other diseases can produce similar symptoms (see section 2 for the differential list).
No. The only way to say a bird has Trichomonas is to prove it visually (under the microscope). One of the simplest and best ways to diagnose Trichomonas is to perform a wet mount preparation or 'wet prep 'on secretions or exudates taken from regions of the bird's body that are likely to contain the organism (should it be present). Really good samples to take when hunting for Trichomonas include crop fluid (crop wash fluid), samples of any mouth lesions and/or feces.
These samples must be very fresh (i.e. examined straight from the bird)! Discovering the Trichomonas organism swimming about under the microscope certainly confirms that the bird carries it and that it could be causing the symptoms seen (in section 1I described how Trichomonas can be present in a bird and yet not be causing the disease signs seen).
The simple wet prep:
•Take a fresh sample from the bird. Good samples include crop wash fluid, fecal samples and/or scrapings of mouth lesions (e.g., cheesy, yellow, or white mouth ulcers, nodules, or lumps). Scrapings taken from the edges of oral lesions (where the lesion abuts up against normal mucosa) yield satisfactory results.
•Put a small amount of the sample on a mildly warmed (body temperature) glass slide (microscope slide).
•Add a couple of drops of warmed saline (0.9% NaCl) to the sample present on the slide. I like to use saline as my diluent because it is isotonic (same density) with most cellular and bodily fluids and won't tend to destroy the Trichomonas organisms. Dense, hypertonic solutions and low-density hypotonic solutions (e.g., pure water) are no good because they tend to cause the Trichomonas organisms to either lose fluid or expand with fluid, respectively, causing them to "pop" (which is no good for diagnosis because the organisms are dead). You also want the saline warm (body temp) because the Trichomonas die if they are too cold (they are fragile little buggers).
•Put a cover slip over the sample/saline mixture on the slide.
•Examine under the microscope (do it immediately, within 20-30 minutes of taking the sample - the Trichomonas organisms do not live long away from the host).
•You need to use at least a 40x microscope setting (400x) to see them. You may have gone to about one hundred times (1000x - under oil) to tell them from other similar flagellate organisms like Giardia and Hexamita.
•You should see the Trichomonas moving about within the debris. It is distinguishable by its undulating membrane and by the fact that it swims erratically with an odd, jerky motion. To see my video on identifying Trichomonas, through the microscope, click here. Trichomonas versus Giardia on a wet prep: Giardia has no undulating membrane. Giardia has two giant sucking discs on the bottom of its body, which makes it look as though it has two huge eyes. Giardia also tends to swim in straight lines with a nice smooth motion.
Note: You can also use a 'hanging drop' technique to see Trichomonas. The organism is spotted swimming happily about the 'drop'. A wet prep is quite adequate though. Culture of Trichomonas: Sometimes Trichomonas organisms are not always that easy to find using simple wet prep techniques (particularly if numbers of organisms are not that high).
If Trichomonas is strongly suspected but organisms are not able to be detected, samples of blood, liver, crop fluid, feces, and mouth lesions may be placed into a Trichomonas-specific culture medium. This medium will cause small numbers of Trichomonas organisms to multiply rapidly, such that they will be able to be detected (confirming the suspected infestation). In short, culturing body samples (fluids, tissues, lesions) suspected of having Trichomonas can improve the chances of making a positive diagnosis (i.e. it is a more sensitive technique).
Trichomonas is not diagnosed on fecal float. For one, it does not produce any resistant, "floatable "oocysts (unlike Giardia and Hexamita, which do produce cysts and may show up on fecal floatation). Secondly, Trichomonas tends to be rapidly destroyed by most fecal flotation solutions, making it impossible to spot on fecal float. I would not rely on fecal float for diagnosing this organism. Liver samples in pigeons and other birds: Sometimes birds die from Trichomonas gallinae or Trichomonas columbate invasion of the internal organs (especially the liver) before the owner even knows that they are sick.
Smears taken of the liver of freshly deceased birds can often reveal the distinct Trichomonas colonies present among the damaged liver cells. Important author's note: Your vet will do the postmortem and the liver smears. It is never recommended that people perform postmortems on their own animals (particularly birds!) without veterinary supervision. Birds can carry a range of serious diseases that can be transmitted to people via post-mortem procedures. Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP. 5) Treatment of Trichomonas infestations in definitive host birds. The main drugs that are used to combat Trichomonas infestations in birds are: metronidazole (Mertin, Flagyl S Syrup), ronidazole , carnidazole and dimetridazole. Metronidazole: Metronidazole tends to be dosed at around 10-30 mg/kg twice daily, however, I have seen doses of up to 40mg/kg used in raptors and as high as 50mg/kg mentioned in some textbooks. It is given twice daily for about 5 days (up to 10 days). .
IMPORTANT: This information is for general reading purposes only. Do not self-prescribe medication for your birds without talking to your vet first. The wrong drug given to the wrong bird can kill! If you suspect Trichomonas infestation, get your vet to diagnose the infestation (section 4, above) and prescribe the correct treatment for your circumstances.
Ronidazole: Ronidazole tends to be dosed at around 6-10 mg/kg once daily. It is given for about 6 days (up to 10 days). IMPORTANT: This information is for general reading purposes only. Do not self-prescribe medication for your birds without talking to your vet first. The wrong drug given to the wrong bird can kill! If you suspect Trichomonas infestation, get your vet to diagnose the infestation (section 4, above) and prescribe the correct treatment for your circumstances.
Carnidazole (commonly used in pigeons and raptors): Carnidazole tends to be dosed at around 20-30 mg/kg. Most texts say to use the drug only once (a one-off dose). I have not personally used this product before. I tend to use Metronidazole or Ronidazole. It is reported to be a safe drug toxicity-wise.
IMPORTANT: This information is for general reading purposes only. Do not self-prescribe medication for your birds without talking to your vet first. The wrong drug given to the wrong bird can kill! If you suspect Trichomonas infestation, get your vet to diagnose the infestation (section 4, above) and prescribe the correct treatment for your circumstances.
Dimetridazole: This drug is commonly associated with side effects and toxicity and needs to be carefully dosed. It is no longer used very much. Author's note: With long term use, it is common for Trichomonas organisms to develop resistance to any of the medications listed above.
Additional supportive care: Birds affected with Trichomonas lesions often get secondary bacterial infections establishing in damaged tissues. This can result in septicemia and death. Broad spectrum antibiotic drugs are often helpful in resolving such issues.
Surgical debridement of large oral lesions can help to clear the bird's airways and to remove large chunks of Trichomonas infection (large Trichomonas colonies exist within the creamy coloured nodules). Supportive feeding (e.g., tube feeding) may be required to help nourish severely inapparent and/or emaciated birds.
IMPORTANT - read our disclaimer:
Once again, this information is provided for general reading purposes only. It is hard to talk about a disease without discussing treatment options and therefore I have included this info on my site. Please do not self-prescribe medication for your birds without talking to your vet first.
Although we try extremely hard to be accurate, drug doses and formulations change all the time and between different countries and information that is current now may not be applicable in the future. The wrong drug given to the wrong bird can kill! If you suspect Trichomonas infestation, get your vet to diagnose the infestation (section 4, above) and prescribe the correct treatment for your circumstances. Pet Informed cannot take responsibility for anything that goes wrong should you choose to ignore this advice and treat your birds without seeking veterinary aid. Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP.
6) Preventing your bird/s from catching avian canker (trichomoniasis). The ongoing control and prevention of Trichomonas infection can be quite difficult if the flock is large and crowded and/or if it is subject to contamination by wild bird flocks or even domestic flocks of unknown disease status (as seen in pigeon racing - during races, birds from all manner of flocks and backgrounds make contact with each other and share common feeding and watering grounds, meaning that the potential for Trichomonas spread is very high.)
Elimination and ongoing control of the parasite requires the bird owner to improve hygiene and husbandry conditions within his own flock and to take steps to reduce the risk of Trichomonas being brought into the flock from the outside world (e.g., via introduced birds and wild Pest birds).
Good hygiene and husbandry conditions in the flock can reduce Trichomonas spread and persistence:
•Clean away soiled litter, soiled perching materials, fallen seed and bird feces as often as possible (at least daily or every second day if you can). •Water bowls should be cleaned thoroughly (e.g., disinfectant, and hot water) and the water changed daily. •Food and water bowls should not be placed near perching sites (this will go some way towards reducing fecal contamination of the food and water). •The birds should not be exposed to intense stress (i.e. poor hygiene, dirty conditions, excessive noise, excessive dust, extremes of heat and cold, exposure to strange birds or predators, overcrowding, worms and other parasites, excessive exercise, insufficient food, and water and so on). Stress reduces the birds' immune system responses, making it easier for them to catch Trichomonas and harder for them to clear it. •The birds should not be overcrowded - this increases stress and increases Trichomonas transmission opportunities. •Check birds daily to assess their overall health (this can help you to pick up signs of early disease/illness). •If possible, weigh the birds every few days (weight loss can be an early sign of disease/illness in birds).
•Immediately isolate any birds who seem unwell or abnormal and get them worked-up for disease.
•Trichomonas infected birds should be treated in isolation from other, healthy birds.
•Birds housed in contact with birds found to be infected with Trichomonas parasites should also be treated. It is for all 'in-contact' birds to carry some population of the organism.
•All deceased birds should be necropsied by your vet to find the cause of death.
•Bird feces should be regularly screened for parasites (fecal float and wet prep), which will help you to know if the flock has some level of Trichomonas present.
•Bird feces should be regularly screened for Salmonella (fecal culture).Donal Barry
•Cull persistently affected and 'carrier' birds (birds who keep turning up a positive swab for Trichomonas, despite having been given treatment for it), even if they have no signs of Trichomonas disease. They pose a risk of infection for the rest of the flock. Preventing Trichomonas from being brought into the flock by outside sources: Pigeon Vet
•Where possible, do not let your birds mix with other birds from diverse backgrounds, who are of unknown disease status. Pigeon Veterinary
•This includes shows - do not let your bird/s (e.g., pigeon/s, dove/s, poultry) mix with other flocks at shows. Donal Barry
•At shows, gloves should be worn when handling birds and changed to a fresh pair every time a new bird is examined.
•Do not let your birds drink from food and water sources that other birds not of your flock have already had access to.
•House birds (including at shows) where they are not exposed to droppings and secretions shed by other birds (e.g., open wire cages stacked under other open wire cages as is commonly seen in poultry sheds).
•Cage and aviary roofs should be solid so that wild birds cannot stand on top of them and poop down into the flock's water and food supplies.
•Design aviaries or cages so that wild birds cannot gain access to the flock or its food and water supplies. Donal Barry
•Discourage wild birds from coming near your flock (e.g., erect predatory bird 'kites'). Donal Barry
•Do not leave food around (e.g. seed spilt outside of or underneath the aviary, compost heaps) that will attract wild birds. Donal Barry
•Clean up any spilled seed, including seed that falls underneath the cage or aviary (if it is a raised structure). Donal Barry
•Racing pigeons should be housed away from the main, non-racing pigeon flock during racing time. These birds should be subjected to a period of isolation (quarantine) and Trichomonas treatment (e.g. metronidazole) and be screened clear of Trichomonas before being reintroduced to the rest of the group. Donal Barry
•New birds introduced to the flock should be subjected to a period of isolation (quarantine) and treated for Trichomonas (e.g. metronidazole) before they are introduced to the rest of the flock. Birds should be screened for Trichomonas and confirmed to be clear of the organisms before they enter the main flock facility. Donal Barry
•Make sure your existing flock is free of disease, including Trichomonas before introducing new birds to it. Screen the flock for Trichomonas to ensure it is 'clean'. Just as new birds pose a risk of infestation for a flock, so too is does an established flock pose a risk of infection for the new birds.
•Do not let visitors to your flock handle the birds if they have recently been handling other birds, including their own birds.
•About people visiting your property/flock, do not let them handle birds from different cages without changing gloves. Periodic Trichomonas treatment: Racing pigeons commonly pick up Trichomonas during the racing season.
Many pigeon keepers will routinely treat their racing birds periodically with antibiotic treatments during the racing season to keep populations of Trichomonas low. A common way of doing this is to treat the birds with a 3-day course of antibiotics once every 3 weeks. Strategic Trichomonas treatment is often given to bird flocks just before anticipated times of stress (stress reduces the immune system competency of the birds, permitting Trichomonas populations to increase). Bird keepers often treat birds routinely for Trichomonas just before breeding, just after weaning and, in racing flocks, just before racing.
Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker
TOP. Your Trichomonas links: To go from this Trichomoniasis page to the Racing Pigeon Laboratory Testing.com To see my video on identifying Trichomonas, through the microscope, click here. As it is my first YouTube video, any feedback would be much appreciated.
Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP. Trichomonas References and Suggested Readings:
1) Protozoans. In Bowman DD, Lynn RC, Eberhard ML editors: Parasitology for Veterinarians, USA, 2003, Elsevier Science.
2) Subkingdom Protozoa. In Hobbs RP, Thompson ARC, Lymbery AJ: Parasitology, Perth, 1999, Murdoch University.
3) Other Flagellated Protozoa. In Schmidt GD, Roberts LS: Foundations of Parasitology, 6th ed., Singapore, 2000, McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
4) Diseases of the Alimentary System. In Raidal SR, Avian Medicine, Perth, 2001, Murdoch University Press.
5) Common Diseases of Aviary Birds. In Shephard M, Aviculture in Australia:
Keeping and Breeding Aviary Birds. China, 2003, Reed new Holland.
6) Madill DN, Parasitology. In Birds 2000, PGF Proceedings 334. Sydney, 2000, Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science.
7) Rose K, Common Diseases of Urban Wildlife.
In Wildlife in Australia: Healthcare and Management, PGF Proceedings 327. Sydney, 2000, Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science.
8) Dorre stein GM, Avian Cytology. In Altman RB et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, 1997, WB Saunders Company.
9) Orosz S, et al. The Gastrointestinal Tract. In Altman RB et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, 1997, WB Saunders Company.
10) Greiner EC, Parasitology. In Altman RB et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, 1997, WB Saunders Company.
11) Dorrestein GM, Passerines. In Altman RB et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, 1997, WB Saunders Company.
12) Dorrestein GM, Hooimeijer J, Pigeons and Doves. In Altman RB et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, 1997, WB Saunders Company.
13) Redig PT, Raptors. In Altman RB et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia, 1997, WB Saunders Company.
14) Appendix-Formulary. In Beynon PH (editor), BSAVA - Manual of Psittacine Birds. Gloucestershire, 1996, BritishSmall Animal Veterinary Association.
15) Simpson VR, Post-Mortem Examination. In Beynon PH (editor), BSAVA - Manual of Psittacine Birds. Gloucestershire, 1996, BritishSmall Animal Veterinary Association.
Trichomonas gallinae pigeon canker - TOP.
Pet Informed is not in any way affiliated with any of the companies whose productsappear in images or information contained within this Trichomonas article or our related articles. Any images or mentions, made by Pet Informed, are only used in order to illustrate certain points being made in the article.
Pet Informed receives no commercial or reputational benefit from any companiesfor mentioning their products and can not make any guarantees or claims, either positive or negative, about these companies' products, customer service or business practices. Pet Informed can not and will not take any responsibility for any death, damage, illness, injury or loss of reputation and businessor for any environmental damage that occurs should you choose to use one of the mentioned products on your pets, poultry or livestock (commercial or otherwise) or indoors or outdoors environments. Do your homework and research all Trichomonas products carefully before using any Trichomonas treatment products on your animals or their environments.
The advice from Pigeons and veterinary given is appropriate to most pet owners, however, given the enormous range of Trichomonas medication types and Trichomonas prevention and control protocols now available, owners should take it upon themselves to ask their own veterinarian what treatment and Trichomonas prevention schedules s/he is using to be certain what to do.
Owners with specific circumstances (e.g., high and repeated Trichomonas infestation burdens in their pet/s; incredibly young birds; commercial bird producers (e.g., poultry farmers); multiple-bird environments; commercial animal breeders; animals on immune-suppressant medicines; animals with immunosuppressant diseases or conditions; owners of sick and debilitated animals; public health workers etc. etc.) should ask their Pigeon vet what the safest and most effective Trichomonas control protocol is for their situation.
Please note: the scientific names mentioned in this Trichomonas article are only current as of the date of this Trichomonas web-page's copyright date and the dates of my references. Parasite scientific names are constantly being reviewed and changed as new scientific information becomes available and names that are current now may alter in the future.